See Flora and Fauna in Venezuela
Venezuela is the home of a very wide variety of plants and animals and offers one of the most biodiverse areas in the world.
The evolucion of animals and plants in Venezuela is the result of two main factors.The diversity of the landscape, which allowed that many unique species developed, as well as the geographical history of the continent.
Once South America was 70 million years geographically isolated, but then, about 3.5 million years ago, raised a land bridge (the present Panama) from the sea, and established a connection to Central America. New species came from Asia across North and Central America to the continent, and mingled with the local fauna and flora. Although this new species enriched the diversity in South America, this also found new competition and other species extinct during this time.
Today there are over 280 different species of mammals in Venezuela , including the jaguar, the puma , the Capybara (Chigueire), the sea cow (manatee), howler monkeys, sloths and two species of freshwater dolphins. To see the sloth it takes a trained eye as they are camouflaged by their almost complete immobility. Venezuela is also home to the giant otter or water-wolf, the rarest otter in the world. The sea cow (manatee) is threatened with extinction and a mammal native to Venezuela. You can find it in the Turúepano National Park in the east of the country (State of Sucre), which was only founded to protect the manatee.
In the dense rain forest in the mountain forests and cloud forests are excellent living conditions for the animals in Venezuela. Therefore a lot of animals live in the canopy of the forest and are very difficult to observe. There are a lot of monkeys, such as Howler monkeys, squirrel and capuchin monkeys. Among the mammals, the numerous species of bats are to be expected, most of them live as pollinators. However, in South America also includes the only surviving so called "real vampire“to them.