Nicaragua since 1502
Nicaragua was the most densely populated territory in Central America
then came the colonialization
The indigenous people were part of the Aztec Empire. Nicaragua was discovered by Columbus in 1502. The colonial period under the Spanish Crown began in 1522 and lasted until the year 1821.
At the beginning of the Spanish colonial time the cities of León and Granada were founded. León should develop itself as a stronghold of the liberal movement, while in Granada they formed a conservative
Parts of the country were briefly under British protectorate; however, the majority of the colony was under Spanish control, which had their colonial administration in Guatemala.
1821 Nicaragua was declared independent and integrated with other newly independent states of Central America in the alliance, the "Central American Federation". The 19th century was dominated by the rivalry between the liberal and conservative forces, so the Federation fell apart after 14 years.
In 1855 the liberals called the American adventurer William Walker to help them. He came with a small mercenary army and took over the government and wanted to make Nicaragua a US protectorate. He received notable support from the southern states.
With a little help from Costa Rica and Honduras, Walker was expelled again.
From 1912 to 1933 then followed an US- American occupation by US Marines.
The Nicaraguan government with President José Santos Zelaya lost nearly all their policy space and Nicaragua was in fact, a protectorate of the United States.
During the occupation, the US had let recruit a kind paramilitary force, the so-called "National Guard".
1936 the commander of the National Guard Somoza assassinated the incumbent President, and declared himself President. This dictatorship was until 1979.
In 1979, the "Sandinista revolution", which successfully replaced the dictatorship occurred. In 1984 came the leader of the Sandinistas, Daniel Ortega to power. The Sandinistas (FSLN) campaigned for the establishment of public buildings, improvement of the infrastructure, as well as for economic and military reforms. All reforms were under the approach to socialism.
The then reigning US President Ronald Reagan, imposed an embargo against Nicaragua and funded a "contra force". This consists of terrorist’s troops, attacks and raids throughout the country, with the aim to destabilize the dictatorship of Ortega. In 1988, the Contras made peace with the government.
In 1990, the Sandinista government was voted out surprising and a woman went to the presidential office. Violeta Barrios de Chamorro launched a much needed phase of the restoration, which focused mainly on the economy and on social services.
In 2007, the people of Nicaragua re- elected the former Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega to the office of the President.